Hideki Tojo (born Eiku Tojo) was born in Kojimachi District (now Chiyoda), Tokyo, Japan to the Japanese Army infantry Lieutenant (later Lieutenant General) Hidenori Tojo. I am very sorry for the nation and all the races of the Greater Asiatic powers. [97], As Tojo's replacement, the jushin advised the Emperor to appoint a former Prime Minister, Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai, as he was popular among the Navy, the diplomatic corps, the bureaucracy and the "peace faction". The majority of the Japanese citizens were not in favor of this treaty as they felt that they had been cheated by America. [57] On November 27, 1941, Tojo chose to misrepresent the "Hull note" to the Cabinet as an "ultimatum to Japan", which was incorrect as the "Hull note" did not have a timeline for its acceptance and was marked "tentative" in the opening sentence, which is inconsistent with an ultimatum. [74] To strengthen his position in face of criticism of the way the war was going, on February 21, 1944, Tojo assumed the post of Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, arguing he needed to take personal charge of the Army. [95], After the Battle of Saipan, it was clear to at least some of the Japanese elite that the war was lost, and Japan needed to make peace before the kokutai and perhaps even the Chrysanthemum Throne itself was destroyed. [8] Japanese schools in the Meiji era were very competitive, and there was no tradition of sympathy for failure; those who did so were often bullied by the teachers. [75] In an attempt to enlist support from all of Asia, especially China, Tojo opened the Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, which issued a set of Pan-Asian war aims, which made little impression on most Asians. [57] Hull proposed that Japan "withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces" from China and French Indochina in exchange for lifting the oil embargo, but left the term China undefined. [28] The Imperial Way faction wanted a coup d'état to achieve a Shōwa Restoration; emphasised "spirit" as the principle war-winning factor; and despite advocating socialist policies at home wanted to invade the Soviet Union. [81] Tojo had some doubts about Operation U-Go, but it was ordered by the Emperor himself, and Tojo was unwilling to oppose any decision of the Emperor. After the war's tide decisively turned against Japan, Tojo was forced to resign as Prime Minister in July 1944. Before being appointed to Prime Minister in 1941, Tojo had an extensive, successful military history. [91] Prince Konoe and Admiral Okada had long been plotting to bring down the Tojo government since the spring of 1943, and their principal problem had been the support of the Emperor, who did not wish to lose his favorite Prime Minister. Tojo's second son, Teruo Tojo, who designed fighter and passenger aircraft during and after the war, eventually served as an executive at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. [85] The Americans had penetrated 1,300 miles beyond the "absolute defense line" at Truk, and Tojo, senior generals and admirals all blamed each other for the situation. On the eve of the Asia-Pacific conflict, Tojo was an outspoken advocate for preemptively attacking the United States and its European allies. [32] Though Tojo regarded preparing for a war with the Soviet Union as his first duty, Tojo also supported the forward policy in north China as the Japanese sought to extend their influence into China. [47][48] By tradition, the Emperor needed a consensus among the elder statesmen or "jushin" before appointing a prime minister, and as long as former Prime Minister Admiral Keisuke Okada was opposed to Tojo, it would be impolitic for the Emperor to appoint him. While there, he received a new set of dentures, made by an American dentist, into which the phrase "Remember Pearl Harbor" had been secretly drilled in Morse code. [112] He recognised the same in his poems, which were discovered much later. However Yonai refused to serve, knowing full well that a Prime Minister who attempted to make peace with the Americans might be assassinated, as many Army officers were still committed to victory or death and regarded any talk of peace as treason. [18] Like almost all Japanese officers at the time, Tojo routinely slapped the faces of the men under his command when giving orders, saying that face-slapping was a "means of training" men who came from families that were not part of the samurai caste, and for whom bushido was not second nature. [7] Japanese girls were taught that the highest honor for a woman was to have as many sons as possible who could die for the Emperor in war. He served as military attaché to Japan’s embassy in Berlin after WWI. The Japanese were pushed back further from the mainland and their control over the conquered islands in the Pacific, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk began to deplete. [71] At the same time, Tojo, as the Army Minister, became involved in a clash with the Army chief of staff over whether to continue the battle of Guadalcanal or not. Only one year later, Tojo accepted the position Vice-Minister of … When the Americans made the expected offensive into the Marianas, the Imperial Navy's Combined Fleet would fight a decisive battle of annihilation against the U.S. 5th Fleet, and halt the American drive in the central Pacific. [78], In the Battle of Saipan, about 70,000 Japanese soldiers, sailors, and civilians were killed in June–July 1944 and in the Battle of the Philippine Sea the Imperial Navy suffered a crushing defeat. [77], At the same time as he sought a diplomatic effort to end the war with China, Tojo also approved of the planning for Operation Ichi-Go, a huge offensive against China intended to take the American air bases in China and finally knock China out of the war once and for all. Tojo received Jewish refugees in accordance with Japanese national policy and rejected the resulting Nazi German protests. [24] This book of fifteen essays by senior generals argued that Japan had defeated Russia in the war of 1904–05 because bushidō had given the Japanese superior willpower as the Japanese did not fear death unlike the Russians who wanted to live, and what was needed to win the During the February 26 coup attempt of 1936, Tojo and Shigeru Honjō, a noted supporter of Sadao Araki, both opposed the rebels who were associated with the rival "Imperial Way" faction. [62] The dispute was resolved by the Emperor who commuted the death sentences of five fliers while allowing the other three to die, for reasons that remain unclear as the documents relating to the Emperor's intervention were burned in 1945.[62]. [32] During this period, Tojo became close to Yōsuke Matsuoka, the fiery ultra-nationalist CEO of the South Manchuria Railway, one of Asia's largest corporations at the time, and Nobusuke Kishi, the Deputy Minister of Industry in Manchukuo, who was the man de facto in charge of Manchukuo's economy. [35] From December 1938 to 1940, Tojo was Inspector-General of Army Aviation. [32] As chief of staff, Tojo was responsible for the military operations designed to increase Japanese penetration into the Inner Mongolia border regions with Manchukuo. Hideki Tojo accepted full responsibility for his actions during the war, and made this speech: It is natural that I should bear entire responsibility for the war in general, and, needless to say, I am prepared to do so. Prime Minister Konoe then held his last cabinet meeting, where Tojo did most of the talking: For the past six months, ever since April, the foreign minister has made painstaking efforts to adjust relations. [65], While Tojo was prime minister, the main forum for military decision-making was the Imperial General Headquarters presided over by the Emperor. Isoroku Yamamoto (山本 五十六, Yamamoto Isoroku, April 4, 1884 – April 18, 1943) was a Japanese Marshal Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II until his death.. Yamamoto held … [39] Tojo was a strong supporter of the Tripartite Pact between Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy. Tojo, in particular, should be made to bear all responsibility at this trial. [18] Tojo wrote with bitterness at the time that American whites would never accept Asians as equals and "It [the Immigration Control Act] shows how the strong will always put their own interests first. The couple had three sons and four daughters. [28] The Control faction, while being willing to use assassination to achieve its goals, was more willing to work within the system to achieve reforms; wanted to create the "national defense state" to mobilize the entire nation before going to war; and, while not rejecting the idea of "spirit" as a war-winning factor also saw military modernization as a war-winning factor; and saw the United States as a future enemy just as much as the Soviet Union.[28]. 3 years later he was sentenced to death. He was an integral part of Japan’s invasion into Manchuria and advocated further expansion into the Chinese country. [37] Kido had aided in the creation in the 1930s of an alliance between the "reform bureaucrats" and the Army's "Control" faction centered around Tojo and General Mutō Akira. You may keep your finely phrased memorandum."[53]. During this period, he also held the positions of Home Minister (1941-42), Foreign Minister (September 1942), Education inevitable next war (against precisely whom the book did not say) was to repeat the example of the Russian-Japanese war on a much greater scale by creating the "national defense state" that would mobilize the entire nation for war. In 1938, Tojo became army vice minister and in 1940 he became army minister. By 1940, Konoe, who had started the war with China in 1937, no longer believed that a military solution to the "China Affair" was possible as he once did, instead favored having Germany mediate an end to the war that would presumably result in a pro-Japanese peace settlement, but would be less than he himself had outlined in the "Konoe programme" of January 1938. [65] The Navy for its part demanded that Japan take New Caledonia, Fiji, and Samoa. Operation Ichigo would end the war with China, freeing up some 2 million Japanese soldiers. Following the 15th Army into India in the U-Go offensive were the Indian nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose and his Indian National Army, as the political purpose of the operation was to provoke a general uprising against British rule in India that might allow the Japanese to take all of India. He was executed by hanging in 1948. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tojo_wearing_tie.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prime_Minister_Tojo_Hideki_photograph.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tojo_Hideki.jpg, https://soundcloud.com/c-rt-625/spongebob-killer, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HidekiTojoColor.jpg. "[43] During the last cabinet meetings of the Konoe government, Tojo emerged as a hawkish voice, saying he did not want a war with the United States but portrayed the Americans as arrogant, bullying white supremacists. [66] The Imperial GHQ was not a joint chiefs of staff as existed in the United States and United Kingdom, but rather two separate services command operating under the same roof who would meet about twice a week to attempt to agree on a common strategy. Hideki Tojo was born in Tokyo on December 30, 1884. He was found guilty of numerous war crimes and sentenced to death by hanging. The Japanese were counting on capturing food from the British to feed their army, assuming that all of India would rise up when the Japanese arrived and thereby cause the collapse of the Raj. [92] The Japanese believed that indoctrination in bushido ("the way of the warrior") would give them the edge as the Japanese longed to die for the Emperor, while the Americans were afraid to die, but superior American pilot training and airplanes meant the Japanese were hopelessly outclassed by the Americans. Tojo had powerful support, and by Japanese standards, he was not extreme. [14] As the Imperial Japanese Army had been trained by a German military mission in the 19th century, the Japanese Army was always very strongly influenced by intellectual developments in the German Army, and Tojo was no exception. In 1905, Tojo shared in the general outrage in Japan at the Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the war with Russia, and which the Japanese people saw as a, betrayal as the war did not end with Japan annexing Siberia as popular opinion had demanded. [47] After being informed of his appointment, Tojo was given one order from the Emperor: to make a policy review of what had been sanctioned by the Imperial Conferences. Hideki Tojo Saved the Lives of 20,000 Jewish Refugees. Hideki Tojo was born in Tokyo on December 30, 1884 to Hidenori Tojo, a Lieutenant General in the Imperial Japanese army. In 1933, after periods in Switzerland and Germany, Tojo was appointed to major general, two years after that in 1935, he was appointed head of the Kwantung army's military police. [60] Tojo continued to hold the position of Army Minister during his term as Prime Minister from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944. Tojo was removed as Chief of Army Staff in July 1944, following which his entire Cabinet announced their resignation. After the Meiji Restoration, the caste system was abolished in 1871, but the former caste distinctions in many ways persisted afterwards, ensuring that those from the former samurai caste continued to enjoy their traditional prestige. [33], After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident marking the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Tojo ordered his forces to attack Hebei Province and other targets in northern China. "[99], After recovering from his injuries, Tojo was moved to Sugamo Prison. On this day, Hideki Tojo, prime minister of Japan, grabs even more power as he takes over as army chief of staff, a position that gives him direct control of the Japanese military. Therefore, with respect to my trial, it is my intention to speak frankly, according to my recollection, even though when the vanquished stands before the victor, who has over him the power of life and death, he may be apt to toady and flatter. World War II started when the Germans invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 after 27 years of peace. According to his descendants, he was treated unfairly and he only had the best intentions of his country and people in mind. In July 1937, he personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in Operation Chahar, his only real combat experience. Tojo gave approval to launch attacks on the United States, Great Britain and the Dutch East Indies towards the end of 1941. As the war's tide increasingly turned against Japan, Tojo was forced to resign as Prime Minister on July 22, 1944. Tojo was not a particularly intelligent student – but was a hard worker. [8] Tojo's boyhood hero was the 17th-century shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu who issued the injunction: "Avoid the things you like, turn your attention to unpleasant duties". [46], At the time, Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni was said to be the only person who could control the Army and the Navy and was recommended by Konoe and Tojo as Konoe's replacement. [10] In 1909, Hideki married Katsuko Ito, with whom he had three sons (Hidetake, Teruo, and Toshio) and four daughters (Mitsue, Makie, Sachie and Kimie). 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