If you are interested in contributing a manuscript or suggesting a topic, please leave us. The Icr:Ha(ICR) mouse: a current account of breeding, mutations, diseases and mortality. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium IMPC [22], launched in September, 2011, aims to catalog the function of every mouse gene in this strain through knockout technologies. Lu Y, Brommer B, Tian X, Krishnan A, Meer M, Wang C. Becattini S, Littmann E, Seok R, Amoretti L, Fontana E, Wright R. Mestre H, Du T, Sweeney A, Liu G, Samson A, Peng W. Uckelmann H, Kim S, Wong E, Hatton C, Giovinazzo H, Gadrey J. Dai H, Lan P, Zhao D, Abou Daya K, Liu W, Chen W. Chew H, De Lima P, Gonzalez Cruz J, Banushi B, Echejoh G, Hu L. Cantuti Castelvetri L, Ojha R, Pedro L, Djannatian M, Franz J, Kuivanen S. Kabayama H, Takeuchi M, Tokushige N, Muramatsu S, Kabayama M, Fukuda M. Simões F, Cahill T, Kenyon A, Gavriouchkina D, Vieira J, Sun X. Binet F, Cagnone G, Crespo Garcia S, Hata M, Neault M, Dejda A, Zhao L, Han X, Lu J, McEachern D, Wang S. A highly potent PROTAC androgen receptor (AR) degrader ARD-61 effectively inhibits AR-positive breast cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. The Gold Standard for Biomedical Research. Frontal cortex neuron types categorically encode single decision variables. Read our COVID-19 research and news. The genome sequence of … Unlike rats, mice may not need a source of water if their food is moist enough. ICR mice, also an albino strain, originated in Switzerland and were selected by Dr. Hauschka to create a fertile mouse line. Their short life span and fast reproductive rate, makes it possible to investigate biological processes in many subjects, at all stages of the life cycle.The mouse makes an excellent model for human disease because the organization of their DNA and their gene expression is similar to humans, with ninety-eight percent of human genes having a comparable gene in the mouse. Its calm temperament and easy handling are welcome features to both scientists and animal lab technicians. Labome surveys literature for instruments and reagents. Mice, rats and other small rodents make up the majority of animals the UK. Wang L et al purchased C57BL/6 mice from Joint Ventures Sipper BK Experimental Animal in Shanghai, China to study the innate immune response against nuclear viral DNA [58]. 2012;7:e43059, Beermann F, Orlow S, Lamoreux M. The Tyr (albino) locus of the laboratory mouse. When crossed with mice having a floxed gene, nestin-Cre transgenic C57BL/6J mice from Jackson laboratory can be used to achieve conditional inactivation of the gene in the nervous system [48]. Many such transgenic lines are then used for the in vivo studies just mentioned. More than 100 million mice and rats are killed in U.S. laboratories every year. CB17 SCID mouse (SCID means severe combined immunodeficiency) is an albino strain with a spontaneous SCID mutation. Today they are indispensable in biomedical research contributing to our understanding of the functions of genes, the etiology and mechanisms of different diseases, and the effectiveness and the toxicities of medicines and chemicals. 2018;12:173. Jagger B, Wise H, Kash J, Walters K, Wills N, Xiao Y. Ekiert D, Friesen R, Bhabha G, Kwaks T, Jongeneelen M, Yu W. Besse A, Besse L, Kraus M, Mendez Lopez M, Bader J, Xin B. Singh D, Chan J, Zoppoli P, Niola F, Sullivan R, Castaño A. Yi W, Clark P, Mason D, Keenan M, Hill C, Goddard W. Kessler J, Kahle K, Sun T, Meerbrey K, Schlabach M, Schmitt E, Chia R, Achilli F, Festing M, Fisher E. The origins and uses of mouse outbred stocks. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar are the two most frequently used rat models. 2020;367:1105-1112, Hirokawa J, Vaughan A, Masset P, Ott T, Kepecs A. In addition, ICR mice from different sources may give rise to different, even contradictory research results [96]. The genomes of the major model organisms have been sequenced, verifying a high level of genetic conservation among model organisms and humans. It also maintains an integrated mouse information resource. IMSR is a collaboration of a dozen international mouse repositories, containing information for 56,886 strains and 231,033 EC cell lines as of September 2019. Of these, most are mice representing 69% of the total animals used in 2006. While BALB/c mice serve as a general purpose animal model, this strain is used extensively for hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production, for example, for the generation of anti-neuropilin-1 antibodies [7], anti-trptase antibodies [65], and others [66], and are especially useful for research in cancer therapy and immunology. Second, they are often applied to build transgenic mouse models, such as those with the photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP) [27]. Other rodent species used in research include gerbils, deer mice, chinchillas, cotton rats, rice rats, multimammate rats, Egyptian spiny mice, degus, voles, and woodchucks, among others. Harlan supplies Hsd nude mice [114], Dark Agouti rat [115], C57BL mice [57], FVB mouse [116], athymic nude Foxn1-nu mouse [73], and SJL/J mice [117]. C57BL/6 and BALB/c are the main mouse strains. Front Cell Neurosci. Cell. 2011;4:393-400, Noristani H, They L, Perrin F. C57BL/6 and Swiss Webster Mice Display Differences in Mobility, Gliosis, Microcavity Formation and Lesion Volume After Severe Spinal Cord Injury. 1974;30:337-59. The genetic variability in such outbred research animal models can be an advantage in the positional cloning of quantitative trait loci and phenotypic or genotypic selection of particular traits. Approximately 95 percent of all laboratory animals are mice and rats. It has the distinct honor of being the first rat stock developed to serve as a model animal. The Sprague-Dawley rat is a hybrid albino strain with a long narrow head. For example, here are 130 strains for mouse p53 gene. C57BL/6 and Swiss Webster mice had different levels of sociability [92] and responded differently to severe spinal cord injury [93]. Hang S et al studied C57BL/6NTac mice with segmented filamentous bacteria from Taconic Bioscience [55]. Nature. Infect Immun. Taconic Biosciences has been providing genetically-defined rats and mice for 60 years. Companies such as GenOway (human VISTA knockin mice [111] ) can also generate transgenic animals on demand. Autism Res. Reducing reliance on higher-order species, rodents have become the animal model of choice for biomedical researchers because their physiology and genetic make-up closely resembles that of people. These are mice in which a transgene has been randomly inserted in the genome by microinjection of a DNA fragment into a pronuclear embryo. Type … Mice usually stay within 30 feet of their nests. PLoS ONE. Brigidi GS et al isolated hippocampal neuronal cells from P0 Sprague–Dawley rats from Charles River [42]. Several publications used CD-1 mice, from Charles River Laboratories [10, 76] or Harlan [9]. The Jackson Laboratory is the primary source for common mouse strains like C57BL, BALB/c mouse strains, and rat strains, and less common strains like FvB/NJ [99], and 129 X1/SvJ [69]. Other mouse strains such as FVB/N mice from Charles River [23, 86], PWK/PhJ from Jackson Laboratory [51], NMRI nude mice [87] and Swiss Webster (SW) mice [88, 89], are also used in biomedical research. A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. 2019;179:514-526.e13. The use of mice is increasing at the expense of other species. Most of the publications surveyed by Labome cited various strains of mice (along with rats, and occasionally rabbits, ferrets, guinea pigs, and rhesus macaque). They are larger in size which makes handling, sampling and … For example, a nonsynonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2), present in the C57BL/6N substrain and not in the B57BL/6J substrain, is responsible for lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine observed in the substrain [36]. In spite of this, the low variation and useful attributes described above have made mouse models an invaluable tool for advancing biomedical progress. elife. Additionally, outbred mice have better fertility and are cost-effective as compared to the other mice types. The substrains of Wistar rats: Wistar Hannover (Han/Wistart) and Wistar Unilever (WU) rat are outbred; while Wistar Kyoto and Wistar Furth are inbred strains. It also has a high incidence of spontaneous lung adenomas, which can easily develop in response to carcinogens. in the use of animals in research halving over the past thirty years. Mouse models of many human diseases have also been developed to advance the studies of disease pathogenesis, and to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicities of various candidate drugs. This is also the first mouse strain whose genome was fully sequenced in 2002, soon after the human genome. Most C57BL/6 substrains are "genetically ablated of one of the most important mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, transhydrogenase (gene NNT), due to a natural deletion in the exons of this gene that completely prevents the expression of the protein [34, 37] ", and the mutation is responsible for the impaired glucose clearance and slightly higher resting glucose levels than strains with wild-type Nnt such as C57BL/6NJ [38]. Lab Anim. Inbred strains of mice were used as disease models, long before the mouse genome project and transgenics. 2002;133:351-61, Sher S. Tumors in control mice: literature tabulation. Mice are used in a vast range of experiments, many of which are classified as fundamental research, investigating the physiology of mammals. Holth JK et al used Jackson Laboratory B6C3F1/J mice (#100010) and B6C3 tau P301S mice (# 008169) to study mouse brain interstitial fluid tau level during the sleep-wake cycle [39]. Nuclear hnRNPA2B1 initiates and amplifies the innate immune response to DNA viruses. For example, Mauffrey P et al used Balb/c nu/nu from Charles River laboratories to study neurogenesis in prostate cancer [43]. They are small, inexpensive and easy to handle, making them ideal candidates for laboratory experiments. Mice are the most frequently cited animal model in biomedical publications (Table 1). Examples of research with BALB/c mice include examination of antiplasmodial immunity in mosquitos [67], demonstrating the host response to influenza A virus is modulated by the novel protein PA-X [68], and studying the effectiveness of antibody CR8020 against group 2 influenza viruses in BALB/c mice from Charles River [69]. Web resources - Where to search for a specific mouse strain? 1980;283:157-61, Eaton G, Johnson F, Custer R, Crane A. As stated above, BALB/c mice play important roles in oncological research. In addition, mineral oil injection can readily induce plasmacytomas in BALB/c strain. Now scientists use mice to simulate human genetic disorders in order to study their development and test new therapies. Yi W et al performed subcutaneous xenografts by using Charles River Laboratories athymic nude (Nu/Nu) mice to show that FGFR-TACC fusion happened in specific GBM patients [71] and studied the role of PFK1 glycosylation in cancer cell growth using Charles River Laboratories nude mice [72]. They have similar reproductive and nervous systems to humans, and suffer from many of the same diseases such as cancer, diabetes and even anxiety. Charles River Laboratories (also its joint venture Vital River in China) is another major supplier of C57BL/6 mice. 2019;179:403-416.e23. They are the most commonly used mammalian model organism, more common than rats.The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. Genetically-defined and genetically-modified mice (and rats) are widely used in research to investigate the function of specific genes, and to serve as experimental models for different human disease. One common application of BALB/c, as with C57BL/6, is to serve as the background strain for various gene deficiency/knockout studies. Lee Y, Chen M, Lee J, Zhang J, Lin S, Fu T. Grüneboom A, Hawwari I, Weidner D, Culemann S, Müller S, Henneberg S. DiToro D, Winstead C, Pham D, Witte S, Andargachew R, Singer J. Tornabene P, Trapani I, Minopoli R, Centrulo M, Lupo M, de Simone S, Current Approaches in C. elegans Research, Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling. For example, a human gene can be copied and transferred to the genetic makeup of a mouse in order to study human disease in a model biological system. Transgenic mice with particular mutations of interest are relatively simple to produce with modern genetic engineering methods like the injection of targeting vectors or CRISPR. Eaton JK et al isolated hepatocytes from Han/Wistar rats to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of GPX4 inhibitors [78]. immunodeficient animal model for testing new cancer treatments and as hosts for human immune system tissues. Brosnan Watters G, Ogimi T, Ford D, Tatekawa L, Gilliam D, Bilsky E, Adams B, Fitch T, Chaney S, Gerlai R. Altered performance characteristics in cognitive tasks: comparison of the albino ICR and CD1 mouse strains. Available from: Strickley J, Messerschmidt J, Awad M, Li T, Hasegawa T, Ha D. Szonyi A, Sos K, Nyilas R, Schlingloff D, Domonkos A, Takács V. Zott B, Simon M, Hong W, Unger F, Chen Engerer H, Frosch M. Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes T, Eccles J, Rouhani S, Peske J. Victora G, Schwickert T, Fooksman D, Kamphorst A, Meyer Hermann M, Dustin M. Mahajan V, Demissie E, Mattoo H, Viswanadham V, Varki A, Morris R. Simon M, Greenaway S, White J, Fuchs H, Gailus Durner V, Wells S. Pettitt S, Liang Q, Rairdan X, Moran J, Prosser H, Beier D. Skarnes W, Rosen B, West A, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V. Waterston R, Lindblad Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril J, Agarwal P. Lein E, Hawrylycz M, Ao N, Ayres M, Bensinger A, Bernard A. Mekada K, Abe K, Murakami A, Nakamura S, Nakata H, Moriwaki K. Bryant C, Zhang N, Sokoloff G, Fanselow M, Ennes H, Palmer A. Kumar V, Kim K, Joseph C, Kourrich S, Yoo S, Huang H, Freeman H, Hugill A, Dear N, Ashcroft F, Cox R. Deletion of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase: a new quantitive trait locus accounting for glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice. There are a large number of laboratory strains available, and their long breeding history means that mice of a single laboratory strain are  isogenic. BALB/c is an albino, immunodeficient inbred mouse strain. Some of the interesting mouse models are discussed later in this article. Luther A, Urfer M, Zahn M, Müller M, Wang S, Mondal M. Labonte B, Abdallah K, Maussion G, Yerko V, Yang J, Bittar T. Patzke C, Brockmann M, Dai J, Gan K, Grauel M, Fenske P. Eaton J, Furst L, Ruberto R, Moosmayer D, Hilpmann A, Ryan M. Takeda K, Kojima Y, Ikejima K, Harada K, Yamashina S, Okumura K, Losick V, Stephan K, Smirnova I, Isberg R, Poltorak A. The treatment is likely some time away for human patients, but the nanoparticles used have already been clinically tested and deemed safe, which makes it easier to quickly translate to clinical use. Labome has surveyed formal publications citing animal models to provide an overview of animal models in publications (Table 1). The author, US veterinarian Larry Carbone, estimates from a sample of 16 facilities (less than 2% of the US total) that 99.3% of the vertebrate animals in research and testing in the US are mice and rats, with 111.5M used in US research in 2017-18. Science. The global resource for scientific evidence in animal research. Inbred strains of mice were used as disease models, long before the mouse genome project and transgenics. The hybrid mice are heterozygous genetically and tend to serve as a background for some deleterious mutations. Sprague-Dawley rats were derived from Wistar rat. It is clear that research conducted on mouse models continues to be an important part of our collective research efforts and knowledge, even with ongoing efforts to replacing animal testing with cell culture models or computational prediction, especially for toxicological studies [19]. They are abused in everything from toxicology tests (in which they are slowly poisoned to death) to painful burn experiments to psychological experiments that induce terror, anxiety, depression, and helplessness. Mice are common experimental animals in laboratory research of biology and psychology fields primarily because they are mammals, and also because they share a high degree of homology with humans. While both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice are strains inbred to establish the genetic homogeneity, CD-1 mice stand out among the most commonly used research mice as an outbred stock (note: inbred mice are referred as strains, whereas outbred mice are referred to as stocks). The common C57BL/6 substrains include C57BL/6J (maintained at The Jackson Laboratory) and C57BL/6N (established at National Institute of Health). They then compared the presence of these receptors in human cells with their presence in two types of laboratory mice, which have been used for more than 100 years to study human diseases. In fact, 95 percent of all lab animals are mice and rats, according to the Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR). Similar to most common mouse models, these two rat strains are albino. Due to the SCID mutation, the success ratio of human tumor transplantation is very high (even higher than nude mice), which makes them into a valuable immunodeficient animal model for testing new cancer treatments, for example [11], and as hosts for human immune system tissues. Szőnyi A et al used wild-type and transgenic C57Bl/6J mice (ChAT-iRES-Cre, CRH-iRES-Cre, vGAT-iRES-Cre, vGAT-iRES-Cre::Gt(ROSA26)SorCAG/tdTomato ) to study the role of brainstem nucleus incertus GABAergic cells in contextual memory formation [24]. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium. “The use of animals is not only based on the vast commonalities in the biology of most mammals, but also on the fact that human diseases often affect other animal species,” they explain. The Jackson Laboratory, … Charles River has been providing research animals for more than 70 years. The more that is known about the mouse, the more valuable it becomes as a research animal.